Empirical Study on Trainers’ Perspectives of National Teacher Standards in the Philippines

Abstract

 This study aims to present and analyze the development of the national standards for TVET personnel in the Philippine context. Using a unified survey questionnaire from the collaborative research on the research project entitled “Development of National and Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel” employing convenience sampling method and some selected interview schedule, and pertinent data was collected. Based on gathered data, it was found out first that there are differences in the terminologies used regarding the words teachers and trainers. In the Philippines, some schools call their practical arts teachers as trainers based on their practice, while some teachers are also called trainers because they have acquired national certifications.  However, there are also trainers who become assessors because they have met certain qualifications. In terms of the development of the national standards or TVET teachers, the Philippine’s TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Framework was used as a basis in determining the National Core Standards for Teachers who are handling Technical-Vocational courses. The development of the National Core Standards of TVET personnel were developed by the Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) national office based on the agency’s centralized process of organizing these guidelines in which were then cascaded to the regional offices for implementation.  This implies limited consultation and collaboration among stakeholders from the other local regions in the country.  Despite the uniform set of guidelines set nationwide, schools and training centers have varied implementation depending on the availability of resources. Teacher-trainers expressed that they have different contexts and interpretations of the guidelines and they rely on the TESDA training regulations for their program delivery specific to the subjects they are teaching. Moreover, they emphasized that they wanted to be consulted about their ideas and suggestions so it can be incorporated in the design and development of the National Teacher Standards in the Philippines so it will have a fair and equal representation among the different delivering institutions in the country.

 

Keywords: Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET), National Teacher Standards, Regional Core Standards, Trainer

 

1 Introduction

One of the expected yet most challenging learning outcomes in academic and training institutions in the Philippines is the development of specific competencies for purposes of employability which must be given focus in the curriculum. The development of curricula and their implementation is one of the key competencies of teachers in the area of educational planning and practical training for technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions and training companies (Rauner 2009). In the same context, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is back on the development agenda after years of neglect (Tripney & Hombrados 2013). Teh and Pendergast (2009) as cited in Khandu (2014) expressed that reforms in the technical vocational education and training (TVET) system have initiated a momentous shift to a knowledge-based economy.

Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) in the Philippines is handled by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). This government agency is tasked to manage and supervise technical education and skills development (TESD) in the Philippines. It was created by virtue of Republic Act 7796, otherwise known as the “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994”. The said Act integrated the functions of the former National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC), the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (BTVE-DECS) and the Office of Apprenticeship of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) (TESDA 2019).

On May 15, 2013, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed into law Republic Act 10533. With the onset of Republic Act 10533 in the Philippine Educational System, the need to implement the Enhanced Basic Education Program in the Philippines starting school year 2013-2014 signaled a change of perspective in the treatment of technical education as it becomes one of the four tracks offered in the Senior High School. Starting in June 2016 Grade 11 students will choose among the four tracks that they will enroll in which Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) is one of the choices. This paved the way to recognize technical and vocational education as an equally important type of education that earns national certification for the Grade 12 graduates to be acknowledged and accepted in various companies after completion and be deployed in different industries in the country. As such, the need to standardize the teachers’ qualifications to ensure quality delivery of instruction becomes a pressing concern that is at the forefront of the issue. This then is the rationale behind the survey on how the teachers’ qualifications are set based on the national standards. In this context, the development of TVET Teacher Standards then is being analyzed in order to explain the processes on how these National Core Standards for TVET personnel were made, formulated, and disseminated.

TESDA develops competency standards for middle-level skilled workers that reflect the units of competency containing descriptors for acceptable work performance. These qualifications are packaged corresponding to critical jobs and occupations in the priority industry sectors. The qualifications correspond to a specific level of the of the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework (PTQF). The competency standards and qualifications, together with training standards and assessment arrangements comprise the national training regulations (TR) promulgated by the TESDA Board. The TRs serve as basis for registration and delivery of TVET programs, competency assessment and certification and development of curricula for the specific qualification.

This study presents the development of the national standard for TVET personnel in the Philippine context. Using a unified survey questionnaire from the collaborative research on the research project entitled Development of National and Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel, the results of the survey were interpreted and analyzed employing both quantitative and qualitative research method. The study was conducted in Cebu and Cebu City, Philippines and the documents that were analyzed come from the central office through their official website and from TEDA Region VII office.

1.1 Purpose of the Study: Collaborative Research Project on the Development of National and Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel

The purpose of this study is to examine the development and implementation of national standards for TVET personnel of 8 ASEAN member countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) and China for the development of a regional standard. By learning and considering the experiences from these countries, hopefully the Regional Standards for TVET Personnel, which are currently being developed, will become more relevant and applicable to all members in the Southeast Asian region and beyond.

1.2 Key Questions

 1.)   What processes, content and structures are involved in developing the National Core Standards (NCS) for TVET personnel?

 2.)   What were the processes in the dissemination of the NCS? 

 3.)   What were the issues raised and recommendations suggested in order to set expectations for the Regional Core Standards for TVET personnel?

1.3 Scope and Limitations of the Study 

This survey on the development and implementation of the national core standards for TVET personnel in the Philippines was conducted within the Visayas region particularly in Cebu City. However, the documents that were analyzed came from the national government or the central office and they are the same documents being used in the different regions in the country. The same documents are also found in the official website of Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). There were three groups of TVET personnel who were solicited information from namely: TESDA Administrators, teachers/trainers, and school principals/directors/administrators. As much as the researchers wanted to interview different TESDA officials in the region, due to conflict of schedule, only the OIC Regional Director was interviewed together with some of the TESDA personnel. As to the teacher-trainers, very few were willing to be interviewed thus the researchers repeatedly went to the different schools in order have the survey questionnaires answered. One school that researchers visited declined also because of conflict of schedule. Despite the researchers initiative to reach as many learning institutions to participate in this study only four accepted the invitation. Nevertheless, pertinent information was solicited among those who participated. There were two Secondary technical and vocational schools in the Visayas region, particularly in Cebu and Cebu City, one industry-based learning institution and one government agency that offered technical and vocational programs that participated in the study. 

1.4 The Philippine Qualifications Framework 

The Philippine Educational System operates based on the Qualifications Framework below. The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) presents and describes the expected competencies and outcomes expected among students and professionals in the different levels of and types of education in the Philippines. 

 

 Figure 1:        The Philippine Educational System (TESDA 2012)

The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) reflects the educational hierarchy and incorporates the different types of education in the country in terms of the expected learning competencies per grade and year level. It also highlights the trifocalization of the educational system from basic education, technical and vocational education until higher education. This Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) is a national policy that describes the levels of educational qualifications and sets the standards for qualification outcomes. It is a quality assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers in the country. It is competency-based, labor market driven and assessment is based on qualification recognition. 

1.5 The Philippine Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) 

According to UNESCO, Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is the “education or training process which involves, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills relating to occupations in various sectors of economic life and social life, comprises formal (organized programs as part of the school system) and non-formal (organized classes outside the school system) approaches” (UNESCO). 

In the Philippines, the Technical-Vocational Education and Training (TVET) provides education and training opportunities to prepare students and other clients for employment. It also addresses the skills training requirements of those who are already in the labor market and would need to upgrade or develop new competencies to enhance employability and improve productivity (Syjuco 2005). 

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is mandated to manage and supervise technical education and skills development in the Philippines. As part of this mandate, TESDA uses competency assessment and certification as both the means and the end of competency and skills development. TESDA’s vision is being the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world-class competence and positive work values. In the performance of its mandate and the pursuit of its vision, TESDA supervises more than 4,500 Technical Vocational Institutions consisting of 4,148 private TVET Institutions, 365 Public Schools and Training Centers, 822 enterprises providing learnership and apprenticeship programs and 126 TESDA Technology Institutions. The Technical Vocational Institutions employ more than 23,000 Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Trainers covering 215 qualifications. Given the enormous number of Technical Training Institutions, TVET Trainers and the diversity of their coverage, TESDA endeavored to ensure consistent delivery of quality training services across the country through the implementation of the National TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Program (NTTAQP) in 2006. This Program aims to qualify and certify the current pool of technical trainers-assessors to ensure their competence in trade qualifications, and training and assessment methodologies. According to the Philippine TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Framework (2015), a TVET Trainer is a professional who enables a learner or a group of learners to develop competencies to performing a particular trade or technical work. Towards this end, a TVET Trainer may assume various roles such as training facilitator, competency assessor, training designer and developer and training supervisor. 

2 Methodology 

The study made use of a unified survey questionnaire from the collaborative research on the research project entitled Development of National and Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel employing convenience sampling method and some selected interview schedule. Three approaches of gathering the needed data were used namely; answering of survey questionnaires, interview schedule, and document analysis. The findings were used as basis in developing regional core standards for TVET personnel that are in line with the ASEAN Economic Community initiative concerning the standardization of the recognition of professional qualifications within the region. 

There were two Secondary technical and vocational schools in the Visayas region, particularly in Cebu and Cebu City, one industry-based learning institution and one government agency that offered technical and vocational programs that participated in the study. The two schools are Abellana National School (ANS) which is located in Osmena Boulevard Cebu City and The Sisters of Mary (SOM) Boystown School in Tungkop, Minglanilla Cebu. The Center for Industrial Technology and Enterprise (CITE) an industry-based and socially-oriented institution, a technical school in Cebu, Philippines located in San Jose, Tamban, Cebu City and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) Region VII are the other two institutions that participated in the study. School administrators and TVE coordinators and teachers in these institutions answered the survey questionnaire and their answers were verified through interviews and focused group discussion. The results were supplemented by the documents that were analyzed in relation to the responses gathered from the research participants. Trainers from TESDA Regional VII office were also solicited information using the survey questionnaire and the responses were verified through a focused group discussion with those who answered the questionnaires. Interviews were also conducted to validate the information gathered from the retrieved questionnaires. 

 Table 1:        Research Participants 

Name of Institution

Administrators

Total

Teachers/Trainers

Total

Abellana National School (ANS)

1 OIC Principal

2 TVE Coordinator

3

12 Female

9 Male

21

Center for Industrial Technology and Enterprise (CITE)

3 TVE Coordinator

3

12 Male

12

Sister of Mary School (SOM) (Boystown)

1 Principal

1 Asst. Principal

1 TVE Coordinator

3

6 Female

13 Male

 

19

Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (TESDA) Region VII

1 OIC Regional Director

1

3 Female

8 Male

11

 

TOTAL

10

TOTAL

63

Table 1 presents the learning institutions that participated in the study. It also shows the number of administrators and TVET teachers who answered the survey questionnaires and those who responded to the questions during the interview and in the focused group discussion. All learning institutions that participate in this study underwent three (3) phases of data collection namely: answered the survey questionnaires, participated in the interview and joined in the focused group discussions. 

Using a unified survey questionnaire from the collaborative research on the research project entitled Development of National and Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel employing convenience sampling method and some selected interview schedule, pertinent data were collected. 

Based on the gathered data, it was found out first that there are differences in the terminologies used regarding the words teachers and trainers. In the Philippines, the term trainers are used to mean the ones who handle classes instead of teachers. However, these trainers (teachers) can also be qualified to become assessors provided they have met the qualifications. In terms of the development of the national standards or TVET teachers, the Philippine’s TVET Trainers- Assessors Qualification Framework was used as basis in determining the National Core Standards for Teachers who are handling TechVoc courses. The development of the National Core Standards of TVET personnel were handled by the Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in their national office based on the agency’s process of organizing these guidelines which were then provided to the regional offices for implementation. Thus, there is a uniform guideline set that is implemented nationwide. 

After the survey questionnaires were retrieved, scheduled interviews and focused group discussions were conducted in order to validate the data gathered. Moreover, document analysis became part in the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data gathered. The results are being classified based on the identified three key areas in this research namely: 1) the development of national core standards, 2) the implementation of these standards, and 3) the expectations for the regional core standards for TVET personnel.  

2.1 Document Analysis  

The documents that were used in this study come from the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and the Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System (PTQCS). The information taken from these sources were used as basis in analyzing the data gathered from the TVE teacher-participants. 

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is the government agency tasked to manage and supervise technical education and skills development (TESD) in the Philippines. It was created by virtue of Republic Act 7796, otherwise known as the “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994”. The said Act integrated the functions of the former National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC), the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (BTVE-DECS) and the Office of Apprenticeship of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) provides direction, direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality education and skills development. The documents that were looked into in this study are all taken from TESDA’s central office in Manila as it is the official government agency that handles pertinent documents on Technical and Vocational education and training in the Philippines. 

The Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System (PTQCS) is a quality-assured system in recognition of the attainment of competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes and values) as referred to the competency standards set for middle-level occupation. It is the process of determining the qualification level of a person and a tool in identifying the training needs of a person with competency gaps. The System implements the principles of Competency Assessment and Recognition of Prior Learning. There are four qualification levels under PTQCS namely: National Certificate I, II, III, IV. National Certificate is issued when a candidate has demonstrated competence in all units of competency that comprised a Qualification Assessment is done through any of the following evidence gathering methods: demonstration/observation with oral questioning; written test; third party report; portfolio and work projects. Apart from the National Certificates, the Phillipine TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Framework (2010) further presents the qualification framework that consist of four levels corresponding to the different roles assumed by trainers. These are: Trainer Qualification Level I for Trainer/Assessors; Trainer Qualification Level II for Training Designers/Developers; Trainer Qualification Level III for Training Supervisors and Mentors; and, Training Level IV for Master Trainer. Those being certified in Levels I and II must be specialists in the areas of competencies they will facilitate while those being certified in Levels III and IV must be both specialists and generalists. The trainer curriculum specified in this program is an enabler and is intended to facilitate trainer development through the various qualification levels. Taking the various courses under the curriculum is not a strict requirement as the trainer may acquire the required competencies through other means (TESDA n.d.). 

2.2 Interview with the TESDA OIC Regional Director, Principals, and TVE Coordinators 

After looking into the documents from the Central office (national government), which was also verified by the TESDA OIC Regional Director in Region VII, it was noted that the development of the National TVET Teacher Standard in the Philippines is a result of the Central Office’s process of coming up with the standard qualification of teachers using their own method of organizing a course of action in deciding on the national standards. According to the Regional Director, there were consultations done among the TESDA administrators and personnel, stakeholders, people from the academe, and people from the industry. From what has been agreed, the decisions made were the basis in formulating the national core standards.  

On the other hand, the School Principals and TVE Coordinators that were being interviewed affirmed what the TESDA OIC Regional Director but added their personal understanding of the process. According them, although the competencies set are logical and reasonable, the context may vary depending on the region where it will be implemented since it will also affect the programs that each school offer and the delivery method being used. In other words, they expressed their sentiments of not being able to be invited whenever there are consultations so their mode of implementation and best practices may also be considered since they feel that only the people from the central office are being listened. Furthermore, they expressed that some of the requirements reflected in the document were not really properly implemented. 

2.3 Interview with the Teachers

When the survey questionnaires were distributed to the teachers, there was a need to verify some details since most of the answers did not reflect specific details. There were also parts that needed verification thus some of the teacher-respondents were interviewed to verify certain items.

As regards with the teachers knowledge on the development of the National Core Standards for TVET personnel, it was found out that majority of the TVE teachers are aware of the existence of the National Core Standards for TVET personnel in the country. On the other hand, they expressed that they have limited understanding on the process that is involved in creating a technical working group that made these standards. These standards serve as their framework and guide in delivering competency-based instruction. However, the teachers expressed that they have very limited idea on how these were formulated. In fact, some expressed that they do not know that a process exists because they were just given direct instructions to follow and implement these standards. Besides, memorandum from the central office is also being provided to each school to they can follow what is stipulated in the national standards.

2.4 Interview with the TVE Coordinators and Principals 

During the interview with the principals and the TVE Coordinators, it was found out that these administrators simply follow specific instruction from the central office (Manila) regarding the implementation of technical-vocational programs in the country. In their respective learning institutions, they abide by the prescribed memorandum orders given by the central office as their guidelines in the delivery of the techvoc programs they offer. These refer to the Training Regulations. Some of these TVE Coordinators narrated how they came to know about the national standards by recalling their experiences. Two of these coordinators (the old one) mentioned that about 10 years ago 

TESDA invited people from the academe, industry, some TESDA people, stakeholders and experts from the different disciplines for a meeting and discussion on certain competencies and standards for them to critique and to give recommendations. According to them, few years after, there came the training regulations from the central office. It was also noted that after that meeting, there was no follow up consultation. 

3 Results and Discussion 

3.1 On the Development of National Core Standards 

Table 2:        Results on the process and committee on the development of the National Core Standards. 

Process and Committee

YES,

I know

NO,

I don’t know

Comments

What were the processes?

51

10

Most know that there was a process but they are not aware nor familiar with these processes

Who were involved?

20

41

Most respondents are only aware of the central office personnel in charge of the program like the TESDA secretary and regional directors but do not really know the composition of the technical working group.

Who assigned them?

20

41

The central office is usually the one who decides and appoints members of the technical working group.

What was the organizational structure?

31

30

The structure is based on the government mandated organizational  structure.

Did they hire consultants?

26

35

They did hire consultants but the respondents have limited information on these consultants that were hired.

The table above shows the teachers’ responses on the process of National Standard for TVET personnel in the Philippines. Majority of the respondents knew that a process exists although there were few who expressed that they do not mind if there is a process in place. They were just concerned of their own employment status. As much as they want to be involved in the process, they also suggest that if possible there should be a wide consultative discussion among trainers and stakeholders on field since some doubted that those who are part of the team may not be experts on the field but just recommended appointees. Even if some stakeholders were consulted, the teacher-trainers must also establish a linkage with these stakeholders so there will be mutual understanding of expected competencies and certain matters will also be clarified since during the final stage of the deliberation only the higher officials are convened and the trainers are not anymore part of the group. 

Moreover, most knew that a process is in place but are not familiar with how it was done. Some didn't bother to know of the process because they are contented that they were hired. Few hardly knew that there is a process in place. Some were aware of the process but cannot explain what the process is. They simply follow what has been given to them since they are also required to follow the guidelines set by the central office. 

3.2 Development Process of National Core Standards for TVET Personnel 

 Table 3:        Results on the development process of the National Core Standards 

Research Questions

Answers

1. Process and Committee:

1.1 What were the processes involved in the development of the National Core Standards of TVET Teachers?

1.2 Who were involved in the development process who assigned them?

1.3 What is the structure/organization of the team (composition)

-         Central office, experts from industries & the academe validated by TESDA board

-         Consultation with representatives

-         Started when TESDA was born/organized (1998-200)

-         It evolved, changed by qualification It took 1 year before it was fully implemented

-         Experts from industries, academe, from TESDA, curriculum developers from the academe

2. Contents and Structure

2.1 What are the contents/elements?

2.2 What is the structure of the National Core Standards?

3. Dissemination

3.1 What were the steps in the dissemination of the NCS?

3.2 Who took charge in the dissemination of the NCS?

3.3 How is it disseminated and what forms of dissemination?

-         Central office issues the memorandum then distributed to the different regions for implementation.

-         There are personnel assigned to place the information in the TESDA website.  All needed information are on the website

4. Issues and Recommendations

4.1 What issues were raised in the development and dissemination of the NCS?

4.2 What suggestions or recommendations to improve the development and dissemination processes?

-         Some are not aware of the process.

-         Some want to know of the people who were involved if they are really experts on field or just recommended.

-         There are concerns of the teachers/trainers that were not addressed like there has to be a wide consultation among trainers and stakeholders so their concerns can be heard.

The table above reflects the verbatim answers to the questions being asked on the development process of the National Core Standards for TVET personnel. It can be noted that there is no clear and identified steps in the formulation of the standards that were disseminated. The dissemination happened only after everything has been written on paper for all the regions to follow and comply. Some of the TVE Coordinators remembered few years back that they have attended a consultative meeting on the development of the training methodologies but there were no follow up meetings after that. Then they just received a memorandum from the central office that there already training regulations that enumerates the specific competencies expected in every program offering which also describes the expected outcome. 

Part of the issues raised by the teacher-respondents that they also expressed is their need to undergo capability building trainings and immersion training in industries so they can enhance their skills and competencies at the same time develop specific techniques in delivering their programs they are handling. They want to ensure that the gap between what they teach and what students will do in the industry be lessened when they also get the chance to observe and even work with their industry partners to have a hands experience also on what their students will soon experience during their On the Job Training (OJT so that they can prepare their students well. 

National Policy documents come from the Central office (National Government, Manila Office) thus there is a limited means of verifying information since those we interviewed cannot give us specific details on the process and thus resulted to recommending us to go to their website (TESDA) for further information. Documents retrieved were basically true only on paper but as to the implementation and monitoring, there is a need to have them verified. This is because the implementation of these policies from one school to the other considering their varied resources. 

3.3 Implementation of national core standards 

Table 4:        results on the implementation of National Core Standards 

Questions

Answers

What are your challenges and issues in the implementation of the National Core Standards for TVET Teachers?

-         How have you managed and addressed these challenges?

-         How could these challenges have been avoided?

-         (23) lack of equipment

-         (10) lack of training

-         (10) dissemination process is one way, those in the region does not have any say on any decisions made. They just simply follow what had been given by the central office.

-         (30) express these issues during meetings but to no avail because nothing can be done since it is already given by the national government (central office in Manila)

Do you have any recommendations for the implementation of the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standards for TVET Teachers?

-         (33) capability building for teachers and trainers so as to upgrade skills and become competitive

-         items such as

-         (10) teaching methodology,

-         (10) content mastery, and

-         (10) personal and professional efficacy must be included so as to ensure that the expected outcomes for both teachers and students are being achieved.

Regarding the implementation of the national core standards, it was found out that technical vocational teachers have a number of challenges in delivering the programs that their school is offering due to lack of equipment and teachers’ training. Although the teachers have the needed qualifications in terms of national competencies together with their academic backgrounds, it was noted that they still express their limitations in the delivery of their subject matter because there are a lot of expectations set for them to implement but the support is still very limited. The teachers expressed their need to upgrade their skills and competencies in order to be updated and relevant to what they are teaching. 

On the other hand, it was also noted that the implementation of the national core standards vary in different learning institutions because of the fact that there are so many programs and not all schools offer the same techvoc programs. Furthermore, every school has its own flagship program and every school is known for a particular techvoc program. For instance, Abellana National School is famous for their cookery and cosmetology programs while the Sisters of Mary Boystown School is known for their automotive and electrical programs. The Technical Education Skills and Development Authority is also known for all their programs since most if not all of their graduates are hired by varied industries in the country. 

Majority of the teacher-trainers in two schools expressed their desire to have modern facilities and resources in their school since their laboratory equipment are not new and they cannot cope with the latest trends in technical teaching since they do not have the modern facilities. Likewise, it was also noted that some of these teacher-trainers themselves feel incompetent because they do not have the specialization even if they have the needed competencies. Another issue that surfaced was the language of instruction for teachers use English during classroom discussions but use the mother tongue when they are in the laboratory particularly in the shop (working area) where they do hands on training. It was then suggested that there should be a common language that can facilitate this gap. In the same manner, it was also suggested that there should also be a common language especially on technical terms for both the academe and industry so as to avoid misinterpretations in the use of certain terminologies. 

3.4 The expectations for regional core standards for TVET personnel 

Table 5:        Results for expectations for regional core standards for TVET personnel 

Questions

Answers

What are your expected components to be included in the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standards for TVET Teachers?

-         specific and common competencies that are generic to all technical vocational programs but on the higher level

-         teaching methodology (competency-based, output driven /outcome-based)

-          personal and professional efficacy for teachers/trainers

-          teacher training and capability workshop must be done regularly

-          academe and industry partnership must come up with their own representations and expectations in order to be included to the core standards in order to limit gaps and avoid mismatch of expectations

-          standardized assessment tools

-          consistency in the use of a common language of instruction, a common language for both academe and industry

-          teacher-trainer characteristics both for personal and professional efficacy and development must be clearly identified

-          certification training template

Which structure would you recommend for the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standards for TVET Teachers?

-         The establishment of the Technical Working Group (TWG) must be well represented by having representatives per region not just from the central office.  Also, there must be representatives for both public and private learning institutions and industries.

-         There must be proper coordination among the higher administration, middle administration and the trainers and teachers.

-         There must be a template from the development to the implementation of the Core Standards so it would easy to trace and follow certain protocols.

How will you use the Regional (ASEAN) Core Standards for TVET Teachers?

-         There must be a national dissemination of information before its full implementation.

-         It must be pilot tested first before the national then regional implementation is done.

-         Feedback mechanism must be in place to enhance the implementation.

-         Each country must share practices in order to be made aware on each countries mode of implementation and learn from each county’s best practices.

-         The mode of delivery must also be standardized across countries.

-         There should be a governing body that will accredit the competencies assessed and tested among the different member countries.

-         National certificates will be honored in all countries.

With regards to the expectations for regional core standards for TVET personnel, most of the TVE teachers being interviewed expressed their excitement in having the Regional Core Standards for TVET teachers because this will provide opportunities for teachers to work in the different parts of the ASEAN region. This will also make teacher exchange programs more feasible so every country can share best practices especially with the ASEAN Integration in place. This will also pose challenges to TVET teachers to be more competent and competitive in the delivery of their technical vocational programs. 

The teacher-trainers expect that there will be mutual accreditation and certification agreement among member countries so it is easier to facilitate whatever documents needed for any further study or work opportunities that might be formed. Most of the respondents also expressed their concerns on the licensing issue like what agency will give the license and for how long. In relation to that, they also asked for the number of years for the effectivity of the license or certification and the requirements for its renewal. 

Apart from the suggestions and recommendations given, some challenges also surfaced as expressed by those interviewed. Their responses are reflected on the table below: 

Table 6:        Challenges and Suggestions 

Challenges/Issues

Suggestions/Recommendations

-         National Policy documents come from the Central office (National Government, Manila Office) thus there is a limited means of verifying information since those we interviewed cannot give us specific details on the process and thus resulted to recommending us to go to their website (TESDA) for further information.

-         Documents retrieved were basically true only on paper but as to the implementation and monitoring, there is a need to have them verified.

-         The personnel that were interviewed come from different programs so there is a challenge in consolidating information.

-         Changes in administration can affect the implementation and documentation of programs because the continuity of the program is sacrificed.

-         It is not easy to get access in interviewing the VIP’s (people that can really provide detailed information)

-         Limited documents that are available for our use (some were not divulged) there is a need to get deeper insight and elaborate explanation to really come up with a valid and reliable information

-         The language of the company is the language of the industry so the challenge is to be consistent in the use of terminologies.

-         There is no clear template that can facilitate certain inquiries on specific certification issuance or licensing.

-         Each region must have representative in the technical working group (TWG) so their content, context, and implementation will also be considered during the formulation of the national core standards.

-         There must be a template on the regular monitoring and classroom observation of teachers so as to ensure uniform implementation and identify best practices among

-         There is a need to have a regular or annual gathering of TVET personnel in the country in order to address issues and respond to challenges in improving the quality delivery of programs and constant updating and upgrading of TVET teachers.

-         There should be a common assessment tool that will standardize the monitoring and evaluation of all programs.

-         There should be a language program embedded in the regional core standards so all teacher-trainers can use the same language for a better understanding of each country’s uniqueness in terms of the implementation of different programs.  A common is needed so as to avoid language barrier in the exchange of communication.

These challenges and issues together with the recommendations and suggestions reflected on the above table are expressed by the both the TVE Coordinators and Teacher-trainers during the focused group discussion. They are just being classified based on the items in the questionnaire with regards to the given responses from the teacher-trainers and TVET coordinators. 

It was noted that majority of the participants are in favor of the development the Regional Core Standards for TVET Personnel because this will standardize the trainers qualification and will provide mutual recognition of certification. This also implies the sharing of expertise and best practices among member countries and thus promote unity, cooperation and collaboration that will lead to a stronger ASEAN union. 

4 Conclusion 

In the Philippines, the development of the National Core Standards of TVET personnel was developed by the Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) national office based on the agency’s centralized process of organizing these guidelines which were then cascaded to the regional offices for implementation. It is a top-to- bottom approach whereby the central office in Manila organizes the development of these national core standards through a selected technical working committee. The decisions are made by the technical working group from TESDA and other government units together with some pool of experts from the industry and the academe, become basis for the national policy. However, the process is limited to those who are in the government agency where the technical committee members are identified. There is minimal participation among other regional teachers, trainers, academic leaders, curriculum makers, and industry experts in the other regions of the country. The process of disseminating the National Core Standards (NCS) is through their online platforms so it can be easily accessed. These are handled by the Technical Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in the national office then cascaded to the regional offices for nationwide implementation. The implementation of the national core standards found to have a number of challenges in delivering the programs in their school due to lack of equipment and teachers’ training. Majority of the teacher trainers are aware that there is a process on the development of the National Core Standards but they do not know who were involved nor the educational structure followed. Teachers’ delivery are based on their qualifications and teaching experiences and the limited technical support affect their classroom instruction. The teachers expressed their need to upgrade their skills and competencies in order to be updated and relevant to what they are teaching. 

References  

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Citation

Javines, F. & Jaca, C. (2019). Empirical Study on Trainers’ Perspectives of National Teacher Standards in the Philippines. In: The Online Journal for Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Asia, issue 13, 1-19. Online: http://www.tvet-asia.info/issue13/Javines_et_al.pdf (retrieved 30.06.2019).

Author(s)

Portrait
Felino B. Javines Jr.
Normal University in Cebu City
Portrait
Cristie Ann L. Jaca
University of San Carlos in Cebu City